Hi there! Welcome to Fantasica.
"link" means to ask for the target player to place their announcement on the inquirer's main page. This is mostly used with in-game auctions, and used to have an easy access on his profile to allow a quick refresh on the current bids.
For example, you see a 7* auction by one of your allies. You're interested in following his auction while looking for potential cards, so you write "link(, please)" on his page. He'll then place a reply with an add about the auction so you can see his leader, which is the only way to show the units being auctioned
"1g" equals "1 god", or one goddess. There are five goddesses in the game - one can only be sold for a hefty ammount of luna, while the other four give a nice boost level for your units (anu/danu/tartu give 3 levels to mellee/missile/magic respectively, while enurta gives 4 to monsters)
"1te" means "1 Time Elixir" - TE, as we call them, are one of the game's currency coins (the other being potion, slightly more valuable due to its usefullness in most valid events) - remember, however, that there are also blue TE/potions that have an additional (P) (personal) to their name - they're easier to get, but they're untradable, being best used in the event that you choose to invest in.
"1:1" is a ratio that players use while trading - for example, you can see players selling potions 6:7, which means that he'll trade 6 potions for 7 TE.
I hope these helped you grasp the terminology ^_^